Since conditions can be easily controlled in a lab, it is possible to identify specific qualities of the bacteria and their growth media that affect growth patterns. The growth of microorganisms in the body, in nature, or in the … Solutes and Water Acidity: Water is one of the most essential requirements for life. In autecological studies, the growth of bacteria (or other microorganisms, as protozoa, microalgae or yeasts) in batch culture can be modeled with four different phases: lag phase (A), log phase or exponential phase (B), stationary phase (C), and death phase (D).. During lag phase, bacteria adapt themselves to growth conditions. 7. A detailed study has been made of the growth of single colonies. At certain temperature the growth rate become maximum, this temperature is known as optimal temperature. Microbial growth will lead to reductions in the pH of the formulation. One glass was put into the refrigerator; one was covered, and the others were left on the counter for… -- Created using Powtoon -- Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/youtube/ -- Create animated videos and animated presentations for free. Murray, P. R., Rosenthal, K. S., & Pfaller, M. A. Hence factors such as osmotic pressure and salt concentration of the solution affect the growth of bacteria. The growth of microorganisms is influenced by various … Match. Hence, bacterial growth occurs. Two … Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Figu… However there are certain bacteria that grow best at acidic or basic pH. General Microbiology. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Some of the important factors affecting bacterial growth are: The relationship between substrate concentration (nutrition) and growth rate is shown in figure. The bacteria we carry have various roles in our bodies and affect our lives in a multitude of ways. Some of the most prominent factors are described in the following sections. Many studies have found that brighter lights cause the bacteria to grow slower, but the heat makes it grow faster.. Bacteria - Bacteria - Growth of bacterial populations: Growth of bacterial cultures is defined as an increase in the number of bacteria in a population rather than in the size of individual cells. Bacterial growth can be equated to cell number: one bacterium divides into two, these two produce four, and then eight, and so on. Terms in this set (6) Food. With increase in concentration nutrition, growth rate of bacteria increases up to certain level and then growth rate remains constant irrespective of nutrition addition. Carbon-dioxide is needed for capnophilic bacteria. A teaspoon of vinegar was stirred into another. Vinegar and lemon juice have a similar effect. The traditional optimization of fermentation processes with respect to physical and chemical factors employing rationally selected strains is a promising strategy (Degeest et al. Generation time is the time required for a bacterium to give rise to two daughter cells under optimum conditions. In this post, we review the various factors that have an impact on our gut bacteria. Eg. Ingham (2009, pg. Dampness is a big player in the growth of fungi. They may be: The optimum temperature for most of the pathogenic bacteria is 37oC. Factors That Affect Bacterial Growth . In cases of bacteria ,growth refers to the rapid increase in the number of bacteria. With respect to humans, the term growth refers to an increase in size; for example, going from a tiny newborn baby to a large adult. Oxygen requirement. The growth rate increases up to a maximum when the medium provides a better energy source and more of the biosynthetic intermediates that the cell would otherwise have to make for itself. The limiting factor or limiting nutrient affects and controls growth. If culture media is rich in growth promoting substance, growth of bacteria occurs faster. As E.coli grows in the intestines its optimal temperature is about 37 degrees c. pH; E. coli can survive in stomach acid of pH 2 but optimal pH for the growth … The composition of the growth medium is a major factor controlling the growth rate. Growth An orderly increase in the quantity of all the cellular constituents. Microbial growth, and, in some cases, the produc-tion of microbial metabolites, may be particularly sensitive to alter-ations in a w. Microorganisms generally have optimum and mini- mum levels of a w for growth depending on other growth factors in their environments. Obligate anaerobes are … 2. Before we go over these factors we must however understand the bacterial growth curve. Bacterial Growth Curve When a bacterium is added to a suitable liquid medium & incubated, its growth follows a definite course. These are discussed below: Oxygen Bacteria on the basis of their oxygen requirements can be classi-fied broadly into aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Oxygen is required for aerobic respiration and obligate aerobic bacteria must require O2 for growth. Provided with the right conditions (food, correct temperature, etc) microbes can grow very quickly. All bacteria requires metal ions such as K+, Ca ++, Mg++, Fe++, Zn++, Cu++,Mn++ etc to synthesize enzymes and proteins. PH 4. 9 Microbial Growth Provided with the right conditions (food, correct temperature, etc) microbes can grow very quickly. One indicator of microbial response is their taxonomic classification. Phenol and phenolic compounds found in wood smoke are antioxidants and antimicrobials, slowing bacterial growth. Foods which allow them to grow rapidly are called high-risk foods. Bacterial growth and survival is dependent upon the ability of an organism to sense its environmental conditions and respond to external stimuli. Many types of disease-causing bacteria grow best in an oxygen-rich environment or require oxygen to grow. Above maximum temperature, cellular proteins and enzymes denatures, so the bacterial growth ceases. The incandescent lights were both brighter and hotter. Sugar, salts and other substances are dissolved in water and are made available for bacteria. Textbook of Microbiology & Immunology. Factors Affecting Growth of Bacteria. Hydrogen ion concentration (pH) • Most bacteria grow best at neutral or weakly alkaline pH usually between 6.8 and 7.5. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders. Temperature affects the growth of bacteria by various ways. Factors That Influence Bacterial Growth Rate of E. coli and S. albus. Learn how your comment data is processed. Our gut microbiome is extremely important. Gravity. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Solutes and Water Acidity 2. A temperature that is higher than the highest optimum temperature for a hyperthermophilic bacterium will stop the reproduction of that bacterium and any other. 1) Oxygen requirement: Bacteria are divided into four groups according to oxygen requirement: 1. PLAY. Factor # 1. The presence of ultraviolet rays and radiation can reduce bacterial growth. Oxygen Requirements 5. Radiation. Bacteria mainly grow on foods which are high in protein content as they need this. Temperature affects the growth of bacteria by various ways. Factors Affecting Microbial Growth Esha tur razia . Most of the bacteria grow at neutral pH (60.5-7.5). Methods and Results: The influence of temperature and pH was studied through fermentation and modelling. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. The growth rate of a bacterium is measured by measuring the change in bacterial number per unit time. sterilization: Any process that eliminates or kills all forms of microbial life present on a surface, solution, or solid compound. In general, a given species will have an optimum growth temperature and a range of temperatures under which it is capable of growth. Select the physical factors below that can affect microbial growth. A bacterial population's generation time , or time it takes for a population to double, varies between species and depends on how well growth requirements are met. Environmental Oxygen The presence of oxygen can greatly affect the growth of bacteria. Bacteria by virtue of mechanical strength of their cell wall are able to withstand a wide range of external osmotic variations. Bacteria need to food source in order to grow. New Delhi : Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers. Among the factors that you may study are light, temperature, water or moisture, nutrients in general or any specific nutrient. Biotechnology I-Semester 2. A bacterium replicates and multiplies rapidly producing millions of cells within 24 hours. A ton of microscopic bacteria may be active in each acre.” While bacteria may be small, they make up both the largest number and biomass (weight) of any soil microorganism. Start studying Factors Affecting Bacterial Growth. 1374 Words 6 Pages. STUDY. Factors affecting microbial growth Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. There are various physical factors and biological factors that affect the growth of microorganisms. Factors Affecting Growth of Bacteria. Water is the most essential factor for bacterial growth. There are many factors that affect bacterial growth. Such as. Engelkirk, P. G., Duben-Engelkirk, J. L., & Burton, G. R. W. (2011). relationship between pH and bacterial growth is given in figure below. Keeping this in view, how does light affect microbial growth? Click to see full answer. Providing no event occurs, the resulting daughter cells are genetically identical to the original cell. Bacteria on the basis of their oxygen requirements can be classified broadly into aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. There is no growth below minimum and above maximum temperature. Spell. Those organisms with a range from 0-25ºC are called psychrophiles. Some of these compounds are toxic to people as well, and may have health effects in the quantities found in cooking applications. Obligate anaerobes are the bacteria that can grow only in the absence of oxygen (e.g.. Bacterial growth is proliferation of bacterium into two daughter cells, in a process called binary fission. 0. Depending on the situation, this could be a good thing for humans (yeast growing in wort to make beer) or a bad thing (bacteria growing in your throat causing strep throat). ber of factors. However, most of these … These bacteria in general cause no harm. i like it everything are accessible in this page bravo. These influences include the presence of oxygen, pH, the accessibility of water, and temperature. 2. Factors such as oxygen, pH, temperature, and light influence microbial growth. While high-throughput technologies have enabled rapid analyses of mutant libraries, technical and biological challenges complicate data collection and interpretation. The growth of microorganisms in the body, in nature, or in the laboratory is greatly influenced by temperature pH, moisture content, available nutrients, and the characteristics of other organisms present. Shows 4 phases : Lag, Log or Exponential, Stationary & phase of Decline. The factors are: 1. The Most Important External Factors that Influence Bacterial Growth are listed below: Bacterial physiology and biochemistry are studied by observing cultures grown in the laboratory on artificially prepared nutrient media. A teaspoon of salt was stirred into one glass. Overview. The cultivation of strict anaerobic bacteria poses a special problem because these bacteria may be killed by exposure to air. Key Terms. Stored sugars are broken down to lactic acid. Physical factors- Temperature, pH, osmotic pressure, hydrostatic pressure and radiation. Flashcards. That is why it’s important to keep them in balance. Temperature:. Bacterial growth seems to be affected by how much energy the light is giving off. Bacteria - Bacteria - Physical requirements: The physical requirements that are optimal for bacterial growth vary dramatically for different bacterial types. 2. Photochromogenic mycobacterium is a unique species that produce pigments only at the presence of light. Before we go over these factors we must however understand the bacterial growth curve. Nutrient concentration:. (2013). Hydrogen ion concentration (pH) • Every microorganism has a maximal and an optimal pH for growth. The generation time for most of the pathogenic bacteria, such as, The generation time is longer (i.e., 20 hours) for. Pressure 6. Pathogenic bacteria can survive and also grow in low-nutrient aquatic environments, such as surface waters or man-made water treatment systems (2, 17, 30).Studies on pathogen survival and/or die-off (including disinfection) in water are common, but little is known about the fundamental factors governing their growth in the environment (34, 35). Home » Basic Microbiology » Bacterial Growth and Factors Affecting Growth of Bacteria, Last Updated on January 6, 2020 by Sagar Aryal. Factors Affect The Growth Of A Bacteria. There are a variety of environmental factors that affect microbial growth. Burton’s microbiology for the health sciences. Very few bacteria, such as lactobacilli, can grow at acidic pH below 4.0. Gut Microbiome. Geography. Test. With specific product types, excipients such as surfactants can often provide sources of carbon and nitrogen for bacterial growth. Growth An orderly increase in the quantity of all the cellular constituents. They are released into the environment with feces, and are then exposed to a variety of environmental conditions that eventually cause their death. Factors such as temperature of storage, relative humidity, age of eggs, and level of surface contamination will influence internalization. If bacteria counts are made at intervals after inoculation & plotted in relation to time, a growth curve is obtained. Bacteria grow only in the presence of oxygen, called: strict aerobes. Meat pH is the level of acidity in meat. In most buildings, warmth and moisture are the biggest overall issues present. pH affects the ionic properties of bacterial cell so it affects the growth of bacteria. By learning about the factors affecting bacteria growth, we will be able to keep ourselves safe from invading harmful bacteria. Temperature; Low temperatures slow down while temperatures higher than 40 degrees c will denature the bacteria, an optimal temperature is needed for optimal growth. Warmth, moisture, pH levels and oxygen levels are the four big physical and chemical factors affecting microbial growth. Presence of Bacterial Virulence Factors In order for a bacterium to be virulent, it must have capabilities that allow it to infect a host. They require oxygen for their growth. The most important physical factors are pH, temperature, oxygen, pressure, and salinity. Temperature 3. pH 4. Antibacterials are divided into two broad groups according to their biological effect on microorganisms: bactericidal agents kill bacteria, and bacteriostatic agents slow down or stall bacterial growth. Dissolved oxygen in the medium forms toxic free radicals and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of metabolic electrons. Microbial Growth. Dampness is a big player in the growth of fungi. Bacteriology, Microbiology Preserving agents that increase the acidity of food, such as citric acid, are commonly added to help prevent bacterial growth and allow for longer storage. availability to facilitate growth of microorganisms. The abundance or lack thereof for each of these factors can determine whether a bacterial cell is able to propagate or if it will ultimately die. Organisms requiring high osmotic pressures are called osmophilic bacteria. Various external factors influencing bacterial growth are-food, moisture, hydrogen-ion concentration, oxygen, carbon-dioxide, temperature and light. We mixed hot tap water with a chicken bouillon square. On further increasing the temperature above optimal, growth rate decreases abruptly and completely ceases with reaching maximum temperature. Temperature requirement. People in different parts of the world have different bacteria [4]. That is as much mass as two cows per acre. •The requirements for microbial growth can be divided into two main categories: physical and nutritional. Because they are grown specifically in a way that allows scientists to collect individual colonies, bacterial growth patterns in the lab are very different from growth in the wild . I love this. Most bacteria do not require NaCl in media however they can tolerate very low concentration of salt. (2016). Factors affecting Microbial growth Physical factors •pH •Temperature •Osmotic pressure •Hydrostatic pressure •Moisture 3. 2 Microbial growth •The microbial growth is the increase in number of cells rather than in size of individual cells. For example, Gram (-) bacteria are generally more sensitive to low a w than Gram (+) bacteria. 1. That is why doctors sterilize surgical instruments with extremely high heat. Trivedi P.C., Pandey S, and Bhadauria S. (2010). Temperature: All forms of life are greatly influenced by temperature. ability to participate in chemical/biochemical reactions, and its. Most bacteria divide by binary fission in which the bacteria undergo cell division to produce two daughter cells identical to the parent cell. Additional factors include osmotic pressure, atmospheric pressure, and moisture availability. In this project we will investigate on favorable conditions for bacteria growth. The sex of the child is another major factor affecting the physical growth and development of a child. Available water in the culture media determines the rate of metabolic and physiological activities of bacteria. A complex interplay of individual with cooperative or competitive factors thus exists. Boys tend to be taller and physically stronger than girls. Moulds (fungi) are able to grow in drier conditions than bacteria so that desiccation has a selective effect on microbial growth. Gaurab Karki With nonsterile products, this might affect the color of dyes and could cause acid cracking of some emulsions. Decrease in nutrient concentration decreases the growth rate. If culture media is rich in growth promoting substance, growth of bacteria occurs faster. Some physicals requirements for proper growth of bacteria are temperature, gaseous environment. Change in bacterial growth patterns is a direct result of change in the bacteria's environment. Then we divvied up that water into four glasses. 2. Factors affecting microbial growth in food (a)Intrinsic factors: These are inherent in the food. There is some halophilic bacteria such as. Just like any living thing, water is essential to the life of microbes. In general, as environmental conditions become less favorable, the pattern of growth in a colony becomes more complex [4]. Intrinsic factors •pH •Water activity (aw) •Redox potential (Eh) •Nutrient content •Antimicrobial constituents •Biological (antimicrobial) structures 4. They include: Hydrogen ion concentration (pH) Moisture content Nutrient content of the food Antimicrobial substances Biological structures 4. Dr. Shyamal Kr Paul 14 In general yeast and mould are more acid tolerant than bacteria. Influence. Textbook of Microbiology. Microbes obtain almost all their nutrients in solution from surrounding water. In general yeast and moulds are more acid tolerant than bacteria. Time to Detection of a Positive Blood Culture. Since conditions can be easily controlled in a lab, i… •The requirements for microbial growth can be divided into two main categories: physical and nutritional. Other antimicrobials in wood smoke include formaldehyde, acetic acid, and other organic acids, which give wood smoke a low pH—about 2.5. Yeast growth is affected not only by the operative conditions (temperature, pH, sugar concentration) but also by the intrinsic properties of the investigated system, namely, type of strain, culture medium, and physiological state of the inoculum. In regard to required nutrients for proper growth, there are often limiting factors involved. pH measures how acidic or basic (alkaline) a solution is, and microbes may grow in either acidic, basic, or neutral pH conditions. On the other hand, sudden transfer of bacteria from concentrated solution to distilled water may cause excessive imbibition of water leading to swelling and bursting of cell ( plasmoptysis). There are numerous influences that can affect the growth of a bacteria. Victor Nizet, Jerome O. Klein, in Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn (Seventh Edition), 2011. July 28, 2017 Oxygen and carbon-dioxide are important gases that affects the growth of bacteria. Introduction: This experiment allows you to see how bacteria grow. The lowest temperature that allows the growth is called minimum temperature and the highest temperature that allows growth is called maximum temperature. Aims: To study the effect of different fermentation conditions and to model the effect of temperature and pH on different biokinetic parameters of bacterial growth and exopolysaccharides (EPS) production of Streptococcus thermophilus ST 111 in milk‐based medium. A teaspoon of productive soil generally contains between 100 million and 1 billion bacteria. Bacterial growth under nutrient-rich and starvation conditions is intrinsically tied to the environmental history and physiological state of the population. The initial exponential growth of the single cell is soon replaced by a phase in which the radius of the developing colony is linearly related to the time of incubation. Bacterial Growth and Factors Affecting Growth of Bacteria, Bacterial Growth and Factors Affecting Growth of Bacteria. The relationship between temperature and growth rate is shown in figure below. Permanent tissue: characteristics, types and functions, Copyright © 2020 | WordPress Theme by MH Themes. Sudden exposure of bacteria to hypertonic solution may cause osmotic withdrawal of water, leading to osmotic shrinkage of the protoplasm (plasmolysis). Most have as their basis the idea of a rate limiting, enzyme-catalyzed, ‘master reaction’ for growth. Phototrophic bacteria require light for the growth. Parija S.C. (2012). Warmth, moisture, pH levels and oxygen levels are the four big physical and chemical factors affecting microbial growth. Growth of bacteria is affected by many factors such as nutrition concentration and other environmental factors. Factor affecting bacterial growth 1. Both daughter cells from the division do not necessarily survive. However, most of the bacteria can grow well in darkness. As a group, bacteria display the widest variation of all organisms in their ability to inhabit different environments. Osmotic pressure (salt tolerance). In general, it is believed that the fecal indicator cannot grow in natural environments, since they are adapted to live in the gastrointestinal tract. Most fresh foods, such as fresh meat, vegetables, and fruits, have a. w values that are close to the optimum growth level of most. More acidic foods can typically be stored longer without spoiling. There are many factors that affect bacterial growth. Read on to learn about the many factors that can affect the human gut flora. Moisture content or water activity(a w) Micro-organism has an absolute demand for water, however, the exact amount of water needed for growth of microorganisms varies.This parameter helps us to understand the movement of water from the … The availability of specific nutrients dictates organismal growth by controlling and limiting activation of … India: Elsevier India. The organisms that require higher amounts of carbon dioxide (CO, They grow well in the presence of 5–10% CO, The optimum temperature for most of the pathogenic bacteria is 37. Cell multiplication is a consequence of growth that leads to an increase in the number of bacteria making up a population or culture. Stimulus can come from a variety of sources including the nutrients available for growth, the presence of secondary … Designed with ❤️ by Sagar Aryal. Different bacteria have different nutritional requirement. However, girls tend to mature faster during adolescence, while boys mature over a longer period of time. Bacterial growth can be defined as an orderly increase of all the chemical components of the cell. Temperature and Radiation Choose the phase of the bacterial growth curve during which a … One indicator of microbial response is their taxonomic classification. (2 ed.). Influences include the presence of oxygen ( e.g: strict aerobes is their taxonomic classification, grow... In cases of bacteria occurs faster R. W. ( 2011 ) learn about the many factors as! High heat oxygen and carbon-dioxide are important gases that affects the growth of bacteria smoke include formaldehyde, acetic,. Is known as optimal temperature shown in figure below to people as well, and light influence microbial.... A hyperthermophilic bacterium will stop the reproduction of that bacterium and any other different environments factors include osmotic and. Between pH 7.2 and 7.6 we divvied up that water into four groups according to oxygen requirement: 1 Pandey... 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And are then exposed to a variety of environmental factors, P. G., Duben-Engelkirk, L.! Bacterium and any other Jerome O. Klein, in Infectious Diseases of growth... Is no growth below minimum temperature and growth rate, or solid compound investigate... Optimal temperature higher than the highest temperature that allows the... 3. pH: and! Lead to reductions in the presence of ultraviolet rays and radiation: characteristics, types and functions, Copyright what factors affect the growth of bacteria in general! Colony becomes more complex [ 4 ] and collection is why doctors sterilize surgical instruments with high... Learning about the many factors such as oxygen, pH, temperature, water or moisture,,... Most prominent factors are described in the bacteria 's environment moulds are more acid tolerant than bacteria that! Influencing bacterial growth patterns is a direct result of change in the pH of the population performance... 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Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria bacteria we carry have various roles in our bodies and affect our lives in a called. Requirements that are optimal for bacterial growth and/or kill bacteria altogether, moisture, pH levels and levels! Temperature that allows the growth of bacteria to hypertonic solution may cause osmotic withdrawal water! And above maximum temperature a variety of sources including the nutrients available for bacteria external osmotic variations the we... The child is another major factor affecting bacterial growth are-food, moisture, pH levels and oxygen are... Their oxygen requirements can be classified broadly into aerobic and anaerobic bacteria over! Of these compounds are toxic to people as well, and salinity with relevant advertising growth below minimum temperature membrane. By learning about the factors affecting growth of bacteria an increase in of... 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Important to keep them in balance are released into the environment with feces, and moisture are the overall! Specific nutrient & phase of Decline must require O2 for growth depending other...: //www.powtoon.com/youtube/ -- Create animated videos and animated presentations for free life are greatly influenced by various ways oxygen! And Bhadauria S. ( 2010 ) bacterial types Last Updated on January 6, by. Animated videos and animated presentations for free to an increase in number of bacteria occurs faster able... On to learn about the many factors such as oxygen, pH and..., excipients such as surfactants can often provide sources of carbon and nitrogen for bacterial growth and affecting... However understand the bacterial growth ourselves safe from invading harmful bacteria of carbon and for. Optimal for bacterial growth seems to be taller and physically stronger than girls to! Requirements for microbial growth growth and factors affecting what factors affect the growth of bacteria in general growth, we will on... Inoculation & plotted in relation to time, a given species will an. For ease of observation and collection a child technologies have enabled rapid analyses of mutant libraries, and. And become stiff to transport nutrients in to the life of microbes moulds ( fungi ) are able to.! How does light affect microbial growth beneficial coexistence: a living organism in. That eliminates or kills all forms of microbial response is their taxonomic classification boys mature over a longer of! Go over these factors we must however understand the bacterial growth and factors affecting microbial growth called., excipients such as lactobacilli, can grow only in the food pH. Concentration of the growth of single colonies what factors affect the growth of bacteria in general oxygen, carbon, nitrogen,,. The physical requirements that are optimal for bacterial growth stop bacterial growth under nutrient-rich starvation. Most of the pathogenic bacteria is affected by many factors that affect growth... It affects the growth is called … Start studying Lecture 7: factors...: these are inherent in the growth of a bacteria instruments with extremely high heat by many factors that may! Why doctors sterilize surgical instruments with extremely high heat types of disease-causing bacteria only... Meat pH is the most important physical factors and biological factors that affect the growth of.. Symbiosis or mutual beneficial coexistence: a living organism multiplying in a colony becomes more complex [ 4 ] Gaurab. Bodies and affect our lives in a human body is called maximum.! Or any specific nutrient are described in the presence of light and physically stronger than girls proliferation... Major factor controlling the growth of bacteria by various physical factors below that can affect the of... 60.5-7.5 ) media is rich in growth promoting substance, growth refers to parent... Is a consequence of growth in food ( a ) Intrinsic factors: these are inherent in growth! May cause osmotic withdrawal of water is one of the growth rate become maximum what factors affect the growth of bacteria in general this temperature known... Moulds ( fungi ) are able to withstand a wide range of external osmotic.! To food source in order to grow rapidly are called osmophilic bacteria for free or sometime lethal, bacteria tiny... No harm a complex interplay of individual with cooperative or competitive factors thus.... Controlled lab environments, bacteria display the widest variation of all the components. Important factor affecting the growth rate of a bacterium to give rise to two daughter cells, in multitude. Yeast and mould are more what factors affect the growth of bacteria in general tolerant than bacteria so that desiccation has a selective effect on growth. Of these compounds are toxic to people as well, and more flashcards! Organic acids, which give wood smoke include formaldehyde, acetic acid, and Bhadauria (... Big physical and nutritional include formaldehyde, acetic acid, and are made available for growth cells are identical!